Pembrolizumab Versus High-Dose Interferon-α2b as Adjuvant Therapy for Pediatric Melanoma: A Retrospective Study

Pembrolizumab Versus High-Dose Interferon-α2b as Adjuvant Therapy for Pediatric Melanoma: A Retrospective Study

Authors

  • Yu Du Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education, Beijing), Department of Melanoma and Sarcoma, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, China
  • Zhonghui Qi Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education, Beijing), Department of Melanoma and Sarcoma, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, China
  • Xianbin Liang Department of Oncology, The Third People’s Hospital of Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou, China
  • Jie Dai Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education, Beijing), Department of Melanoma and Sarcoma, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute
  • Xiaoting Wei Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education, Beijing), Department of Melanoma and Sarcoma, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, China
  • Xue Bai Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education, Beijing), Department of Melanoma and Sarcoma, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, China
  • Lili Mao Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education, Beijing), Department of Melanoma and Sarcoma, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute
  • Zhihong Chi Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education, Beijing), Department of Melanoma and Sarcoma, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute
  • Chuanliang Cui Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education, Beijing), Department of Melanoma and Sarcoma, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute
  • Bin Lian Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education, Beijing), Department of Melanoma and Sarcoma, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute
  • Bixia Tang Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education, Beijing), Department of Melanoma and Sarcoma, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute
  • Xuan Wang Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education, Beijing), Department of Melanoma and Sarcoma, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute
  • Yu Chen Department of Medical Oncology, Fujian Cancer Hospital and Fujian Medical University Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China
  • Jun Guo Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education, Beijing), Department of Melanoma and Sarcoma, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute
  • Lu Si Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education, Beijing), Department of Melanoma and Sarcoma, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute

Keywords:

PD-1, Interferon, Children, Adolescents, Melanoma

Abstract

Introduction: Pembrolizumab is well-tolerated in pediatric patients with advanced tumors, consistent with results in adults. However, information on the safety and efficacy of adjuvant pembrolizumab in children and adolescents with melanoma is lacking.

Objectives: To compare pembrolizumab versus high-dose interferon-α2b (HDI) as adjuvant therapy in pediatric patients with melanoma.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study of pediatric patients diagnosed with melanoma between January 2008 and April 2022. Relapse-free survival (RFS) and the 1-year RFS rate were compared between patients receiving adjuvant pembrolizumab or HDI. 

Results: Seventy-five pediatric patients with melanoma were screened from a database of 6,013 patients. Twenty-four patients were finally enrolled, of whom 9 received pembrolizumab and 15 received HDI as adjuvant therapy. By August 31, 2022, the median follow-up times were 23.6 months and 98.7 months in the pembrolizumab and HDI groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in median RFS between two groups (not reached versus 38.7 months, P = 0.11). The median overall survival was not reached in either group. The 1-year RFS rates were 88.9% and 66.7% in the pembrolizumab and HDI groups, respectively. All adverse events in the pembrolizumab group were grade 1 or 2, but grade 3–5 adverse events occurred in two (13%) patients receiving HDI.

Conclusions: RFS was similar in pediatric patients with melanoma receiving adjuvant pembrolizumab or HDI, but pembrolizumab was associated with a reduced risk of recurrence and a more favorable safety profile. However, due to the small sample size and differences in follow-up time, larger and prospective studies are still warranted to explore better adjuvant therapies for pediatric melanoma.

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Published

2024-01-31

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Pembrolizumab Versus High-Dose Interferon-α2b as Adjuvant Therapy for Pediatric Melanoma: A Retrospective Study . Dermatol Pract Concept [Internet]. 2024 Jan. 31 [cited 2024 Jul. 13];14(1):e2024026. Available from: https://dpcj.org/index.php/dpc/article/view/3517

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