Dermoscopy of Infectious Dermatoses (Infectiouscopy) in Skin of Color—A Systematic Review by the International Dermoscopy Society “Imaging in Skin of Color” Task Force

Dermoscopy of Infectious Dermatoses (Infectiouscopy) in Skin of Color—A Systematic Review by the International Dermoscopy Society “Imaging in Skin of Color” Task Force


  • Payal Chauhan Department of Dermatology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, India
  • Biswanath Behera Department of Dermatology and Venereology, AIIMS, Bhubaneswar, India
  • Delaney D Ding University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA
  • Aimilios Lallas First Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece
  • Soumil Khare Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, AIIMS, Raipur, India
  • Nkechi Anne Enechukwu Nnamdi Azikiwe University/Nnamdi Azikiwe Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria
  • Martyna Sławińska Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland
  • Bengu Nisa Akay Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey
  • Balachandra S Ankad Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy, SN Medical College, Bagalkot, Karnataka, India
  • Yasmeen J Bhat Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Government Medical College, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
  • Abhijeet Kumar Jha Department of Dermatology & STD, Patna Medical College & Hospital, Patna, India
  • Feroze Kaliyadan Department of Dermatology, Sree Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Ernakulum, India
  • Awatef Kelati Dermatology Department, Cheikh Khalifa International University Hospital, Mohammed VI University of Health Sciences (UM6SS), Casablanca, Morocco
  • Shekhar Neema Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Armed Force Medical College, Pune, Maharashtra, India
  • Nisha V Parmar Department of Dermatology, Rashid Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
  • Jennifer Stein The Ronald O. Perelman Department of Dermatology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA
  • Richard P Usatine Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Texas Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA
  • Keshavamurthy Vinay Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
  • Enzo Errichetti University of Udine, Italy


dermoscopy, dermatoscopy, entodermoscopy, entomodermoscopy, epiluminescence, infections, skin of color, dark skin, black skin, ethnic skin, dark phototype, african skin, systematic review


Dermoscopy has been showed to facilitate the non-invasive recognition of several infectious disorders (infectiouscopy) thanks to the detection of peculiar clues. Although most of the knowledge on this topic comes from studies involving light-skinned patients, there is growing evidence about its use also in dark phototypes. This systematic literature review summarizes published data on dermoscopy of parasitic, bacterial, viral and fungal dermatoses (dermoscopic findings, used setting, pathological correlation, and level of evidence of studies) and provides a homogeneous terminology of reported dermoscopic features according to a standardized methodology. A total of 66 papers addressing 41 different dermatoses (14 bacterial, 5 viral, 11 fungal infections, and 11 parasitoses/bites and stings) and involving a total of 1096 instances were included in the analysis. The majority of them displayed a level of evidence of V (44 single case reports and 21 case series), with only 1 study showing a level of evidence of IV (case-control analysis). Moreover, our analysis also highlighted a high variability in the terminology used in the retrieved studies. Thus, although promising, further studies designed according to a systematic and standardized approach are needed for better characterization of dermoscopy of infectious skin infections.


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How to Cite

Dermoscopy of Infectious Dermatoses (Infectiouscopy) in Skin of Color—A Systematic Review by the International Dermoscopy Society “Imaging in Skin of Color” Task Force. Dermatol Pract Concept [Internet]. 2023 Oct. 4 [cited 2024 Jul. 13];13(S1):e2023309S. Available from: